Standard screening test: NONE

Known risk factors

  • A history of cancer treatment with radiation therapy.
  • Certain genetic disorders including: retinoblastoma (occurring mostly in children, caused by a mutation in the RB1 gene), Werner syndrome (caused by a mutation in the WRN gene, causes premature aging after puberty), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (involves a mutation of the TP53 gene or the CHEK2 gene neurofibromatosis type 1 also known as von Recklinghausen disease, caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene), Gardner syndrome (caused by mutation in the APC gene, causes growth of multiple colonic polyps, bone and soft tissue tumours), Basal cell nevus syndrome (caused by a mutation in a tumour suppressor gene PTCH1).
  • Exposure to vinyl chloride or thorium dioxide.
  • Viral infections, KSHV and HIV.

Additional facts & information:

5 Year Survival

  • Stage 0 – N/A
  • Stages 1&2 – 90%
  • Stage 3 – 81%
  • Stage 4 – no data