Standard screening test: rectal examination (can only detect posterior tumours), PSA (commonly used, but controversial since it has not been shown to reduce mortality. PSA is limited by false positives e.g. infection).

  • Prostate cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death in males.
  • In Canada, the incidence of prostate cancer peaked in 1993 and 2001. Each of these peaks was followed by a decline. These peaks are compatible with two waves of intensified screening activity using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Since at least 2001, the age-standardized incidence has been declining (1.6% per year).
  • The PSA test is not currently recommended in Canada as a population-based screening test. Despite uncertainty about the benefits and risks of prostate cancer testing, use of the PSA test is widespread.

Additional facts & information:

5 Year Survival

  • Stage 0 – no data
  • Stages 1&2 – 100%
  • Stage 3 – 100% and 2001.
  • Stage 4 – 29%

About 16% of cases are diagnosed late at stage 3 or stage 4.